Contents

List of Figures                                                                                                                     vii

List of Tables                                                                                                                      viii

List of Contributors                                                                                                              x

Preface                                                                                                                                xiii

Acknowledgments                                                                                                                  

1    An Introduction to the Basic Income Guarantee                                                        1
Michael Lewis, Steven Pressman, and Karl Widerquist                                           

Part One: History                                                                                                                  

2    In the Shadow of Speenhamland: Social Policy and the Old Poor Law                13
Fred Block and Margaret Somers

3    Inheritance and Equal Shares: Early American Views                                             55
John Cunliffe and Guido Erreygers

4    The Guaranteed Income Movement of the 1960s and 1970s                                  77
Robert Harris

5    A Retrospective on the Negative Income Tax Experiments: Looking                   95
Back at the Most Innovate Field Studies in Social Policy
Robert A. Levine, Harold Watts, Robinson Hollister, Walter Williams,
Alice O’Connor, and Karl Widerquist

Part Two: Debate                                                                                                                    

6    Basic Income in the United States: Redefining Citizenship in the                       109
Liberal State
Almaz Zelleke

7    Basic Income, Liberal Neutrality, Socialism, and Work                                         122
Michael W. Howard

8    A Framework for Justice and Fairness                                                                     138
Roy Morrison

9    Does She Exploit or Doesn’t She?                                                                            160
Karl Widerquist

10  Perhaps There Can Be Too Much Freedom                                                            172
Michael Lewis


Part Three: Evidence                                                                                                             

11  Income Guarantees and the Equity-Efficiency Tradeoff                                       185
Steven Pressman

12  Have the 1996 Welfare Reforms and Expansion of the Earned Income              205
Tax Credit Eliminated the Need for a Basic Income Guarantee in the
United States?
James B. Bryan

13  Back to Work Incentives in a Dynamic Perspective: An Application                220
to French Labor Market
Thierry Laurent and Yannick L'Horty

14  Social Minima in Europe: The Risks of Cumulating Income-Sources                 234
Stephen Bouquin

Part Four: Proposals                                                                                                             

15  The Political Economy of the Basic Income Grant in South Africa                     257
Nicoli Nattrass and Jeremy Seekings

16  The Approval of the Basic Income Guarantee in Brazil                                         271
Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy

17  The Basic Income Guarantee in Europe: The Belgian and Dutch                        279
 Back Door Strategies
Yannick Vanderborght

18  The Cost of Eliminating Poverty in Canada: Basic Income With                         304
an Income Test Twist
Derek Hum and Wayne Simpson

19  Can a Negative Income Tax System for the United Kingdom Be                         315
Both Equitable and Affordable?
Randall Bartlett, James Davies, and Mike Hoy                                                         

Index                                                                                                                                    339